Left arm spinner Ravindra Jadeja claimed figures of 5/47 as India took firm control of the first test by bundling out Australia for 177 at the end of day 1 at the Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium in Nagpur on Thursday.
The hosts handed cap to debutants Suryakumar Yadav and KS Bharat.
After winning the toss and electing to bat first, Mohammed Siraj got India off to a dream start by trapping Usman Khawaja (1) leg before with an in-swinger.
Mohammed Shami then got into the act by castling David Warner with a peach off a delivery for 1 as Australia were reduced to 2/2.
The pair of Marnus Labuschagne and Steve Smith then stitched together a third wicket stand of 82 runs. Smith got a reprieve when Virat Kohli dropped a catch at slip off Axar Patel.
However Jadeja pegged the visitors back- first by dismissing the well set Labuschagne (49), stumped by debutant Srikar Bharat, and then claiming Matt Renshaw leg before wicket for a first ball duck.
Former skipper Smith (37) was then undone by a straight delivery from all rounder Jadeja.
The pair of Peter Handscomb and Alex Carey put on 53 runs for the sixth wicket stand before the former was bowled by Ravi Ashwin while attempting a reverse sweep. With this the star spinner also reached the landmark of 450 wickets in test cricket.
The off-spinner also claimed the scalp of Australian skipper Pat Cummins (6), who edged one to Virat Kohli at slip.
Jadeja then dismissed debutant Todd Murphy for a duck and then claimed his 5-fer by trapping Handscomb (31) leg before wicket while attempting a sweep.
Ashwin polished off the tail by knocking over Scott Boland (1) with a carrom delivery as the Aussies folded for 177.
In response, Indian opening pair of Rohit Sharma along with KL Rahul got India off to a steady start. The pair added 76 runs for the opening stand before Rahul (20) chipped a return catch a return catch to Murphy just before the close of play.
Skipper Rohit led from the front by remaining undefeated on 56, as the hosts ended Day 1 at 77/1, still trailing by 100 runs.
Stumps at the end of Day 1.
India 77 for 1 (Rohit 56*) trail Australia 177 (Labuschagne 49, Smith 37, Jadeja 5-47) by 100 runs